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FamousLastWords


"Late night, come home. Work sucks! I know!"

About The Author

Hey everyone! I'm Famous and I've been writing here for 7 years now. I love to write Romance and "Coming of Age" stories, but honestly, I'm always looking to broaden my horizons. I'm always down to answer any writing questions you might have, so feel free to reach out or drop a comment!

Love, Famous








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Great writer

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Edge Sterling Gardel Maverick

This name is fucking stupid lmao

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Any chance you'll be updating this story soon?

The invention of the wheel falls into the late Neolithic, and may be seen in conjunction with other technological advances that gave rise to the early Bronze Age. Note that this implies the passage of several wheel-less millennia even after the invention of agriculture and of pottery, during the Aceramic Neolithic (9500–6500 BCE).

upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7d/Ur_chariot.jpg/220px-Ur_chariot.jpg
A depiction of an onager-drawn cart on the Sumerian "battle standard of Ur" (c. 2500 BC)

The Halaf culture of 6500–5100 BCE is sometimes credited with the earliest depiction of a wheeled vehicle, but this is doubtful as there is no evidence of Halafians using either wheeled vehicles or even pottery wheels.[3]

Precursors of wheels, known as "tournettes" or "slow wheels", were known in the Middle East by the 5th millennium BCE (one of the earliest examples was discovered at Tepe Pardis, Iran, and dated to 5200–4700 BCE). These were made of stone or clay and secured to the ground with a peg in the center, but required effort to turn. True (freely-spinning) potter's wheels were apparently in use in Mesopotamia by 3500 BCE and possibly as early as 4000 BCE,[4] and the oldest surviving example, which was found in Ur (modern day Iraq), dates to approximately 3100 BCE.

The first evidence of wheeled vehicles appears in the second half of the 4th millennium BCE, near-simultaneously in Mesopotamia(Sumerian civilization), the Northern Caucasus (Maykop culture) and Central Europe (Cucuteni-Trypillian culture), so the question of which culture originally invented the wheeled vehicle is still unsolved.

The earliest well-dated depiction of a wheeled vehicle (here a wagon — four wheels, two axles) is on the Bronocice pot, a c. 3500 – 3350 BCE clay pot excavated in a Funnelbeaker culture settlement in southern Poland.[5]

The oldest securely dated real wheel-axle combination, that from Stare Gmajne near Ljubljana in Slovenia (Ljubljana Marshes Wooden Wheel) is now dated in 2σ-limits to 3340–3030 BCE, the axle to 3360–3045 BCE.[6]

Two types of early Neolithic European wheel and axle are known; a circumalpine type of wagon construction (the wheel and axle rotate together, as in Ljubljana Marshes Wheel), and that of the Baden culture in Hungary (axle does not rotate). They both are dated to c. 3200–3000 BCE.[7]

In China, the wheel was certainly present with the adoption of the chariot in c. 1200 BCE,[8] although Barbieri-Low[9] argues for earlier Chinese wheeled vehicles, c. 2000 BC.

In Britain, a large wooden wheel, measuring about 1 m (3.3 ft) in diameter, was uncovered at the Must Farm site in East Anglia in 2016. The specimen, dating from 1,100–800 years BCE, represents the most complete and earliest of its type found in Britain. The wheel's hub is also present. A horse's spine found nearby suggests the wheel may have been part of a horse-drawn cart. The wheel was found in a settlement built on stilts over wetland, indicating that the settlement had some sort of link to dry land.[10]

Although they did not develop the wheel proper, the Olmec and certain other American cultures seem to have approached it, as wheel-like worked stones have been found on objects identified as children's toys dating to about 1500 BC.[11] It is thought that the primary obstacle to large-scale development of the wheel in the Americas was the absence of domesticated large animals which could be used to pull wheeled carriages.[citation needed] The closest relative of cattle present in Americas in pre-Columbian times, the American Bison, is difficult to domesticate and was never domesticated by Native Americans; several horse species existed until about 12,000 years ago, but ultimately became extinct.[12] The only large animal that was domesticated in the Western hemisphere, the llama, did not spread far beyond the Andes by the time of the arrival of Columbus.

Nubians from after about 400 BCE used wheels for spinning pottery and as water wheels.[13] It is thought that Nubian waterwheels may have been ox-driven.[14] It is also known that Nubians used horse-drawn chariots imported from Egypt.[15]

The wheel was barely used, with the exception of Ethiopia and Somalia, in Sub-Saharan Africa well into the 19th century but this changed with the arrival of the Europeans.[16][17]

upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/32/Tekerlek.jpg/220px-Tekerlek.jpg
Twentieth-century solid wheel made of wooden boards, bound with a metal wheel rim

Early wheels were simple wooden disks with a hole for the axle. Some of the earliest wheels were made from horizontal slices of tree trunks. Because of the uneven structure of wood, a wheel made from a horizontal slice of a tree trunk will tend to be inferior to one made from rounded pieces of longitudinal boards.

upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d9/Greek_chariot.jpg/220px-Greek_chariot.jpg
Spoked wheels on an ancient Etruscan chariot, 2nd quarter of the 6th century B.C.

The spoked wheel was invented more recently, and allowed the construction of lighter and swifter vehicles. In the Harappan civilization of the Indus Valley and Northwestern India, we find toy-cart wheels made of clay with lines which have been interpreted as spokes painted or in relief,[18] and a symbol interpreted as a spoked wheel in the script of the seals,[19] already in the second half of the 3rd millennium BCE. The earliest known examples of wooden spoked wheels are in the context of the Andronovo culture, dating to c. 2000 BCE. Soon after this, horse cultures of the Caucasus region used horse-drawn spoked-wheel war chariots for the greater part of three centuries. They moved deep into the Greek peninsula where they joined with the existing Mediterranean peoples to give rise, eventually, to classical Greece after the breaking of Minoan dominance and consolidations led by pre-classical Sparta and Athens. Celtic chariots introduced an iron rim around the wheel in the 1st millennium BCE.

The spoked wheel was in continued use without major modification until the 1870s, when wire-spoked wheels and pneumatic tires were invented.[20] The wire spokes are under tension, not compression, making it possible for the wheel to be both stiff and light. Early radially-spoked wire wheels gave rise to tangentially-spoked wire wheels, which were widely used on cars into the late 20th century. Cast alloy wheels are now more commonly used; forged alloy wheels are used when weight is critical.

The invention of the wheel has also been important for technology in general, important applications including the water wheel, the cogwheel(see also antikythera mechanism), the spinning wheel, and the astrolabe or torquetum. More modern descendants of the wheel include the propeller, the jet engine, the flywheel (gyroscope) and the turbine.

Comment posted by twidash1993 deleted Dec 18th, 2021
Comment posted by twidash1993 deleted Dec 18th, 2021
Comment posted by twidash1993 deleted Dec 18th, 2021

Heyy, FLW, hope you're doing well. 💖

Sorry if I'm bothering you, just been trying to chat with someone.

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