• Member Since 12th Jun, 2014
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Where's your gaseous chlorine now?

Welcome, tovarisch!

Not much to say. I like gas masks, CQC, and zombie apocalypse fiction. I am a firm believer of the Straight Edge movement. I don’t believe in luck, prefer night over day, and Libra is my zodiac sign. And that’s pretty much all you need to know about me. For now

I’ve never really thought of myself as a Brony, mostly due to the stigma associated with the term. Still, I did like the show, if only for the research (Time Dilation in 'It's About Time' for instance)

If you wish to know me on a personal level or just want to talk, PM me or let me know in the comment box. We're all friends here, unless you feel the need to be mean. Enjoy your stay

Possible reasons I followed you:
1. I can relate to you (or not, opposites attract and all that)
2. I like your avatar
3. I like your stories
4. Everyone deserves a friend :D

History and Development of the Gas Mask

According to Popular Mechanics, "The common sponge was used in ancient Greece as a gas mask..." An early type of rudimentary gas mask was invented in the 9th century by the Banu Musa brothers in Baghdad, Iraq. They described it in their Book of Ingenious Devices, mainly for protecting workers in polluted wells.

Primitive respirator examples were used by miners and introduced by Alexander von Humboldt already in 1799, when he worked as a mining engineer in Prussia; long before that there was a Plague doctor's bird beak shaped mask/face piece filled with herbs.

The forerunner to the modern gas mask was invented in 1847 by Lewis P. Haslett, a device that contained elements that allowed breathing through a nose and mouthpiece, inhalation of air through a bulb-shaped filter, and a vent to exhale air back into the atmosphere. According to First Facts, it states that the "gas mask resembling the modern type was patented by Lewis Phectic Haslett of Louisville, Kentucky who received a patent on June 12, 1849." U.S. patent #6,529 issued to Haslett, described the first "Inhaler or Lung Protector" that filtered dust from the air.

Early versions were constructed by the Scottish chemist John Stenhouse in 1854 and the physicist John Tyndall in the 1870s.

Another early design was the "Safety Hood and Smoke Protector" invented by Garrett Morgan in 1912, and patented in 1914. It was a simple device consisting of a cotton hood with two hoses which hung down to the floor, allowing the wearer to breathe the safer air found there. In addition, moist sponges were inserted at the end of the hoses in order to better filter the air. There is a common misconception that "Safety Hood and Smoke Protector" inspired WWI era gas masks. The density of gasses in the WWI theater were heavier than air they were dispersed into. This would mean that the gas would creep along the ground, often filling in the trenches and shell craters below ground level. The use of a device that draws clean air from the "floor" would facilitate the effect of the gas rather than protect against it.

The first use of poison gas on the Western Front was on 22 April 1915, by the Germans at Ypres, against Canadian and French colonial troops. The initial response was to equip troops with cotton mouth pads for protection. Soon afterwards the British added a long cloth which was used to tie chemical-soaked mouth pads into place, and which was called the Black Veil Respirator. Dr. Cluny MacPherson of Royal Newfoundland Regiment brought the idea of a mask made of chemical absorbing fabric and which fitted over the entire head to England, and this was developed into the British Hypo Helmet of June 1915. This primitive type of mask went through several stages of development before being superseded in 1916 by the canister gas mask of 1916. This had a mask connected to a tin can containing the absorbent materials by a hose.

The British Royal Society of Chemistry claims that British scientist Edward Harrison developed the first practical gas mask for mass production (towards the end of 1916), a claim supported by a thank-you note written by Winston Churchill.

American chemist and inventor James Bert Garner is credited by American sources with the invention of the gas mask in April 1915. Reading a newspaper article describing a gas attack on British forces which he hypothesized had employed chlorine gas, Garner remembered experiments he had performed while teaching at the University of Chicago, thus he set about creating the first gas mask which he tested on two of his associates in a gas filled chamber. Following the successful completion of the test, he provided the results to the British government. Also in World War I, since dogs were frequently used on the front lines, a special type of gas mask was developed that dogs were trained to wear. Additionally, gas masks were developed during World War One and the time following for horses in the various mounted units that operated near the front lines.

In America thousands of gas masks were produced for American as well as Allied troops. Mine Safety Appliances was a chief producer. This mask was later used widely in industry.

The modern gas mask that people in the USA are familiar with today was developed in 1944 by the US Army Chemical Warfare Service. It was made of plastic and rubber-like material that greatly reduced the weight and bulk compared to World War One gasmasks and fitted the user's face more snugly and comfortably. The main improvement was replacing the separate filter canister connected with a hose by a filter canister screwed on the side of the gas mask, that could be replaced easily. Also, it had replaceable plastic lenses, much helping vision.

Gas masks development since has mirrored the development of chemical agents in warfare, filling the need to protect against ever more deadly threats, biological weapons, and radioactive dust in the nuclear era. However, where agents that cause harm through contact or penetration of the skin occurs, such as blister agent or nerve agent, a gas mask alone is not sufficient protection, and full protective clothing must be worn in addition, to protect from contact with the atmosphere. For reasons of civil defense and personal protection, individuals often buy gas masks believing that they protect against the harmful effects of an attack with nuclear, biological, or chemical (NBC) agents; which is only partially true, as gas masks protect only against respiratory absorption. Whilst most military gas masks are designed to be capable of protection against all NBC agents, they can have filter canisters proof against those agents (heavier) or only against riot control agents and smoke (lighter, and often used for training purposes); likewise there are lightweight masks solely for use in riot control agents and not for NBC situations.

Although thorough training and the availability of gas masks and other protective equipment can render the casualty-causing effects of an attack by chemical agents nullified, troops who are forced to operate in full protective gear are less efficient in completing their given tasks, tire easily, and may be affected psychologically by the threat of attack by these weapons. During the Cold War era, it was seen as inevitable that there would be a constant NBC threat on the battlefield, and thus troops needed protection in which they could remain fully functional; thus protective gear, and especially gas masks have evolved to incorporate innovations in terms of increasing user-comfort, and in compatibility with other equipment (from drinking devices to artificial respiration tubes, to communications systems etc.). The gas mask has thus now arrived at a 'fourth generation' of development.

How Gas Masks Work

Any time there is a threat of biological or che­mical attack, the first thing you hear about is gas masks.
Gas masks -- more generically known as respirators -- are also an important part of industrial safety on a daily basis. They protect workers against everything from flour dust in a grain elevator to the damaging organic chemicals in paint spray.

Types of Gas Masks
When most people think about gas masks or respirators, what they usually envision is a tight-fitting plastic or rubber face mask with some sort of filter cartridge. The mask covers the nose and mouth. These are called half-mask air-purifying respirators. Depending on the chemical or biological agents in the environment, a half mask may not be sufficient because the eyes are very sensitive to chemicals and offer an easy entry point for bacteria. In this case, a full-face respirator is called for. It provides a clear face mask or clear eye pieces that protect the eyes as well.
Air-purifying respirators have two advantages:
They are the least-expensive option.
They are the least-complicated option.
The problem with air-purifying respirators is that any leak in the mask makes them ineffective. The leak could come from a poor fit between the mask and the user's face, or from a crack or hole somewhere on the mask.
Two other types of respirator systems solve the leak problem. The supplied-air respirator uses the same sort of filter cartridge found in an air-purifying respirator. However, instead of placing the filter directly on the mask and requiring the user's lungs to suck air through it, the filter attaches to a battery-operated canister. The canister uses a fan to force air through the filter, and then the purified air runs through a hose to the mask. The advantage is that the air coming into the mask has positive pressure. Any leak in the mask causes purified air from the canister to escape, rather than allowing contaminated air from the environment to enter. Obviously, positive pressure creates a much safer system, but it has two disadvantages:
If the batteries die, so do you.
The constant air flow through the filter means that the filter does not last as long.
However, for infants and children this may be the only option because their small faces make masks difficult to fit reliably.
The best system is called an SCBA (self-contained breathing apparatus) system. If you have ever seen a firefighter wearing a full-face mask with an air tank on his or her back, then you have seen an SCBA system. The air tank contains high-pressure purified air and is exactly like the tank used by a SCUBA diver. The tank provides constant positive pressure to the face mask. An SCBA provides the best protection, but has the following problems:
The tanks are heavy and bulky.
The tanks contain only 30 or 60 minutes of air.
The tanks have to be refilled using special equipment.
SCBA systems are expensive.
For firefighting, an SCBA system makes a lot of sense. The smoke is thick, dangerous and contains an unknown mix of poisonous gases. The fire may consume most or all of the oxygen in the air. The fire engine can carry extra tanks or refilling equipment, and a firefighter spends a limited time in the burning building. For civilians or for soldiers on the battlefield, however, an SCBA system is nearly impossible to manage because of the expense and the limited air time.

How Filters Work
Because of the problems with SCBA systems, any respirator that you are likely to use will have a filter that purifies the air you breathe. How does the filter remove poisonous chemicals and deadly bacteria from the air?
Any air filter can use one (or more) of three different techniques to purify air:
Particle filtration
Chemical absorption or adsorption
Chemical reaction to neutralize a chemical
Particle filtration is the simplest of the three. If you have ever held a cloth or handkerchief over your mouth to keep dust out of your lungs, you have created an improvised particulate filter. In a gas mask designed to guard against a biological threat, a very fine particulate filter is useful. An anthrax bacteria or spore might have a minimum size of one micron. Most biological particulate filters remove particle sizes as small as 0.3 microns. Any particulate filter eventually clogs, so you have to replace it as breathing becomes difficult.
A chemical threat needs a different approach, because chemicals come as mists or vapors that are largely immune to particulate filtration. The most common approach with any organic chemical (whether it be paint fumes or a nerve toxin like Sarin) is activated charcoal.
Charcoal is carbon. Activated charcoal is charcoal that has been treated with oxygen to open up millions of tiny pores between the carbon atoms. According to Encyclopedia Britannica:
The use of special manufacturing techniques results in highly porous charcoals that have surface areas of 300-2,000 square metres per gram. These so-called active, or activated, charcoals are widely used to adsorb odorous or coloured substances from gases or liquids.
The word adsorb is important here. When a material adsorbs something, it attaches to it by chemical attraction. The huge surface area of activated charcoal gives it countless bonding sites. When certain chemicals pass next to the carbon surface, they attach to the surface and are trapped.
Activated charcoal is good at trapping carbon-based impurities ("organic" chemicals), as well as things like chlorine. Many other chemicals are not attracted to carbon at all -- sodium and nitrates, to name a couple -- so they pass right through. This means that an activated-charcoal filter will remove certain impurities while ignoring others. It also means that, once all of the bonding sites are filled, an activated charcoal filter stops working. At that point you must replace the filter.
Sometimes, the activated charcoal can be treated with other chemicals to improve its adsorption abilities for a specific toxin.
The third technique involves chemical reactions. For example, during chlorine gas attacks in World War I, armies used masks containing chemicals designed to react with and neutralize the chlorine.
Destruction by chemical reaction was adopted in some of the earliest protective equipment such as the 'hypo helmet' of 1915 (chlorine was removed by reaction with sodium thiosulfate) and in the British and German masks of 1916 (phosgene was removed by reaction with hexamethyltetramine).
In industrial respirators, you can choose from a variety of filters depending on the chemical that you need to eliminate. The different filters are color coded by NIOSH standards for things like acids and ammonia.

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Merry Christmas!

And a happy new year!

Ze Captein appreciates your profile.

2247588 Oh. Well in that case, thank you for inviting me.

Fun fact: A pangram, or holoalphabetic sentence, is a sentence that contains every letter of the alphabet at least once. The most famous pangram is probably the thirty-five-letter-long “The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog,” which has been used to test typing equipment since at least the late 1800s

2247534 You were in the faggots guild and a few dead shitposting groups and seeing as how tgd is still active figured you might enjoy our group cancer

2247498 You invited to Vlade's group, did you not? Now, a question for a question seems fair to me. Why did you invite me? Not that I am complaining, but out of simple curiosity… why?

Thanks for the follow!:eeyup: Might I ask what I did to deserve it?

Thanks for the follow!

Thanks for the follow also awesome gas-masks pics I couldn't stop laughing

Thanks for the watch :twilightsmile:

2207523 You are welcome, tovarishch! :twilightsmile:

Thanks for the follow

Hey!:pinkiehappy: I posted a new story called Emerald's Struggle! Go check it out!

If you want to:fluttershysad:

Let's try to get this Story featured!:yay:


I appreciate the follow. Thanks. :twilightsmile:

2042094 You are welcome, tovarishch!

Thank you for the watch, lad.

2028302 You are welcome, tovarishch! :twilightsmile: Have a free Trevor Phillips Burning Freddy Fazbear courtesy of Trevor Phillips Industries

Thanks for the watch! :ajsmug:

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